Many Coloradans overlook the not-so-subtle differences between the state’s complex mix of coniferous forests. The various tree species, geographical aspects, and weather patterns throughout the state greatly influence how forest lands should be managed. More importantly, how they manage themselves.
Here, in the Blue River Valley, lodgepole pine, spruce and fir dominate the sub-alpine terrain. These forests are extremely dense and do not allow for easy passage by recreational hikers, hunters, and backcountry skiers. As a result, many mistake these forests for being overgrown or poorly managed.
Colorado’s lodgepole pine, spruce, and fir trees have a lifespan of 100 to 150 years. These trees reach a size that makes them highly susceptible to the mountain pine beetle. The beetles require a certain trunk diameter for insulation and food. They target and kill off large mature sections, causing the impassible pile-up of dead trees, familiar to so many of Summit County residents.
Right now, the question of who owns riverbeds in Colorado is under the microscope in Colorado’s Supreme Court.
Several years ago, Roger Hill repeatedly attempted to fish on a segment of the Arkansas River by standing on the riverbed that belongs to Mark Warsewa and Linda Joseph. After Mark and Linda attempted to forcefully remove Roger from their property, Roger sued Mark and Linda and claimed that title to the riverbed on their property belongs to the State of Colorado and is held in trust for public use under the public trust doctrine.
Under the public trust doctrine, the public is granted access to waterways for recreation, navigation, and subsistence. In Colorado, the public trust doctrine is limited to “navigable” rivers, yet, in 1912, the Colorado Supreme Court ruled that there are no navigable rivers in Colorado.
China produces approximately 70 percent of the world's output of this textile. France is the next largest producer of this crop followed by Austria, Chile, and the United Kingdom. In all, over 30 countries around the world produce industrial hemp.
The USDA estimates that U.S. 2021 hemp production totaled $824 million. This includes hemp for all utilizations. According to textileexchange.org, hemp is a bast fiber. That means the fiber-producing part of the plant is made up of strands that run its length and surround the woody core of the stem. It has a deep root system which helps to reduce soil loss and is useful in many different crop rotations.
This dynamic emerging industry is where finance and nature meet. The purpose of Conservation Finance is to preserve nature and its intrinsic ecological attributes and eco-system services. The goal is to raise and manage capital to support land, water, and resource conservation.
A healthy intact eco-system provides clean and reliable water, clean air, robust biodiversity for aquatic, avian and terrestrial species. Eco-friendly projects also provide carbon capture, an additional benefit and a public good, that is under appreciated.
Valuable landscape resources left to traditional developers could be heavily degraded. While this can serve a profit purpose in the short term, the long-term environmental assets are less capable of delivering water, clean air and healthy vegetation for wildlife and for carbon capture.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is emitted around the globe. Efforts to stem CO2 have been contentious and significantly unsuccessful.
A report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), dated June 2022, illustrates this point. 2020’s 4.6% drop in global greenhouse gas emissions was a pause in an otherwise powerful upward trend. This drop was due to lockdowns during the pandemic.
We saw an increase across all sectors in 2021, to levels higher than pre-pandemic. There are many potential solutions. Placing a price on carbon is one, but no formal global market exists; and no definitive legislative mandate is certain.
I think of forests and natural wonders mainly in terms of public land. Here in Summit County, CO the amount of forested public land managed by the United States Forest Service (USFS) is approximately 80%. That is higher than the overall percentage across Colorado.
According to the Colorado State Forest Service (CSFS) “Approximately 65% of Colorado’s forests are in federal ownership; the primary land manager is the U.S. Forest Service with 47 percent or 11.3 million acres. Nearly three-quarters of the state’s high-elevation species such as spruce-fir, lodgepole pine and aspen are located on USFS lands. The Bureau of Land Management oversees an additional 17 percent or 4.2 million acres, primarily in the state’s lower elevation piñon-juniper and oak shrubland forests. The National Park Service has responsibility for 380,925 acres or 2 percent of Colorado’s forests; most of these lands are within the borders of Rocky Mountain National Park.”
The last few weeks presented a few surprises on Capitol Hill. Within the last month and a half many believed that a deal was in the works for the Build Back Better Act with negotiations within the Democratic party being vigorously pursued. Seemingly, at the last hour, all was lost despite those apparent laborious negotiations with disappointment expressed by many who worked to advance this for many reasons including work on the environment and combating climate change.
Then in a surprise to many not privy to inside discussions, the Inflation Reduction Act was created. It remains to be seen if it will truly reduce inflation in part because there are many components of calculated inflation that in some ways are beyond the control of legislative action.
It does reinvigorate enthusiasm and action on the climate front at a cost. According to the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget website, it calculates a cost for the energy and climate piece at roughly $386 billion. Tax credits for clean electricity, clean manufacturing, and clean fuel are main beneficiaries. These climate investments will be paid for with revenue from a 15% minimum corporate income tax.
On July 27th, the North American Grasslands Conservation Act was introduced by Senator Ron Wyden (D) Oregon and co-sponsored by Senator Michael Bennet (D) Colorado and Senator Amy Klobuchar (D) Minnesota. This bill dedicates $312 million to restoration efforts.
The findings in Section #2 of the summary substantiate the need for this bill. “Grasslands, including sagebrush shrub-steppe systems, are some of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. These ecosystems are working lands that are critical for rural economies, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat but are at risk from fragmentation, invasive species, catastrophic wildfire, and degradation. As these ecosystems decline, the country has lost more and more grassland ecosystem wildlife, particularly grassland and sagebrush birds.”
Wetlands.org, considers wetlands to be the “unsung heroes” in the fight against climate change. They just penned a white paper supporting the idea wetlands can be pivotal in achieving global warming targets as well as increasing biodiversity.
“Wetlands store almost a third of global soil carbon, and support 40% of global biodiversity, despite covering just 6% of the earth’s surface. Sadly though, wetlands are disappearing three times faster than forests, with 35% of wetland ecosystems lost since 1970.” (Wetlands International)
We love our beautiful high elevation wetlands here in the Rockies. Globally, they come in many types. “Mangrove forests, for example, get less publicity than tropical forests, even though the destruction of mangrove ecosystems results in 10% of total CO2 emissions from deforestation globally.” (Wetland.org)
A mangrove is a shrub or tree that thrives in tropical or sub-tropical coastal regions enjoying the saline water environment. They are the only tree species according to Conservation.org that can survive in salt water. They don’t like freezing temperatures, which is why they are found mainly in south Florida.
Saturday June 4th marks the 30th National Trails Day, originally founded by the American Hiking Society. It is a day that means a lot to me. My time in Summit County began volunteering with stewardship groups for day and overnight trips repairing trails that provide us so much connectivity to nature.
The trails I roam continue to provide me with the path toward greater awareness of our eco-system with all its beauty and power. A few of the trails meander by the magnificent cabins in the Summit Huts system. Volunteering at over 11-thousand feet above sea level provides even more time for appreciation and exploration of the unique natural assets here in the region.
I began to wonder, what is really beyond the trail where most of us spend our time in our outdoor pursuits? It turns out there is a wonderous system out there. This forested watershed is both the Dillon Ranger District and the Blue River Watershed.
Sagebrush covers massive tracts of land in the west and Canada. According to the Intermountain West Joint Venture, it used to cover 247 million acres in the US, though now it is about half that.
This keystone species supports over 350 species, including the adorable pygmy rabbit and charismatic greater sage-grouse. Several bird and mammal species are almost entirely dependent on sagebrush for survival: Gunnison sage-grouse, sage sparrow, Brewer’s sparrow, sage thrasher, pygmy rabbit, and sagebrush vole. (CPW) Colorado Parks and Wildlife
The plant is alive year-round which is important for the sage-grouse as it depends on it for 100% of its winter diet. It also functions as a nurse plant for other plant species, including important livestock forage plants.
Water scarcity is a risk many people and organizations take too lightly, particularly in the West, where we are experiencing megadrought with little end in sight.
A group of climate scientists from UCLA, NASA and Columbia University as recently as 2018 and 2019 studied, among other statistical data, tree rings to help determine soil moisture. They found soil moisture deficits have doubled in the last 22 years.
That does not bode well for many reasons. Landscapes are less drought resilient and more prone to scarring wildfires. The condition perpetuates itself as water flows off, carrying more sediment and leaving parched earth behind.
We all use water as a valuable resource. So do businesses and corporations. I thought I would take a look into the water risks of the corporate world.
As you Sow (https://www.asyousow.org) is a non-profit based in California that does a lot of work on environmental, health and climate change issues. Shareholder advocacy is one tool they utilize and have been reasonably successful.
Healthy riparian zones serve to capture carbon and thus contribute to fighting global climate change. They are the areas bordering rivers and other bodies of surface water. They provide many environmental and recreational benefits to streams, groundwater, and downstream land areas. Groundwater is usually found at shallower depths in riparian zones than in the surrounding landscape. These areas are visually defined by a greenbelt with a characteristic suite of plants that are adapted to and depend on the shallow water table.
Camp Hale and the Continental Divide Photo by: Mason Cummings, The Wilderness Society
The Colorado Outdoor Recreation and Economy Act (CORE) is a bill that was introduced by Senators Michael Bennet and John Hickenlooper and US Congressman Joe Neguse. It would ultimately protect up to 400,000 acres of public land.
The bill expands wilderness designations for more than 31,000 acres of wilderness, including some of the state’s most recognizable mountain scenes encompassing two fourteeners: Mount Sneffels and Wilson Peak in the San Juan Mountain Range in Southwest Colorado. I went on a hut trip in the area last winter and it was truly magnificent. Check out the San Juan Hut system for an awesome adventure.
Closer to home is the Continental Divide and Camp Hale piece of this legislation. Holy Cross, Ptarmigan and Eagles Nest Wilderness would tack on 20,000 acres collectively. In addition, Camp Hale where the 10th Mountain Division trained during World War Two would be the first designated historic national landscape.